The Catholic Worker Movement

A Collection of Peter Maurin's Easy Essays

Looking for Leadership

Catholic Worker Philosophy

Historical Background

Legalized Usury

Works of Mercy

Criticism and Marxism

Communitarianism

Agrarianism

Farming Communes

What They Say They Believe

Disarmament


No Recourse

 
	1. Politicians used to say:
	     "We make prosperity
	     through our wise policies."

	2.  Business men used to say:
	     "We make prosperity
	     through our private enterprise."

	3.  The workers did not have anything to say
	     about the matter;

	4.  They were either put to work
	     or thrown out of employment

	5.  And when unemployment came
	     the workers
	     had no recourse
	     against the professed makers
	     of prosperity,
	     politicians and business men.
	


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Politics Is Politics

1. A politician is an artist
	      in the art of following the wind
	      of  public opinion.
	2. He who follows the wind
	      of public opinion
	      does not follow
	      his own judgement.
	3. And he who does not follow 
	      his own judgement
	      cannot lead people
	      out of the beaten path.
	4. He is like the tail of a dog
	      that tries to lead the head.
	5. When people stand behind their president
	      and their president
	      stands behind them
	      they and their president
	      go around in a circle
	      getting nowhere.
	


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Classes And Clashes

	1. Business men say
	     that because everybody is selfish
	     business must necessarily
	     be based on selfishness.

	2. But when business
	     is based on selfishness
	     everbody is busy
	     becoming more selfish.

	3. And when everybody is busy
	     becoming more selfish,
	     you have classes and clashes.

	4. Business men create problems;
	     they do not solve them.
	


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Teachers Of Subjects

	1. Our business managers
	     don't know how to manage
	     the things they try to manage,
	     because they don't understand
	     the things they try to manage.

	2. So they turn to college professors
	     in the hope of understanding
	     the things they try to manage.

	3. But college professors
	     do not profess anything,
	     they only teach subjects.

	4. As teachers of subjects,
	     college professors
	     may enable people
	     to master subjects,
	     but mastering subjects
	     has never enabled anyone
	     to master situations.
	


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The Age Of Treason

	1. Pope Pius IX and Cardinal Newman
	     consider liberalism,
	     whether it be
	     religious, philosophical, or economic,
	     the greatest error of the nineteenth century.

	2. Modern liberalism
	     is the logical sequence
	     of the so-called age of Enlightenment-
	     the age of Voltaire, Rousseau, Thomas Paine-
	     sometimes called the Age of Reason
	     in opposition to the Age of Faith.

	3. By sponsoring nationalism and capitalism
	     modern liberals
	     have given up the search for truth
	     and have become paid propagandists.

	4. Modern liberals have ceased to appeal to reason,
	     and have chosen to appeal to prejudice.

	5. So the Age of Reason
	     has become the age of Treason,
	     as Julien Benda points out
	     in his book entitled:
	     "The treason of the Intellectuals".
	


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Church And State

	1. Modern Society
	     believes in the separation
	     of Church and State.

	2. But the Jews
	     did not believe in it.

	3. The Greeks
	     did not believe in it.

	4. The Romans
	     did not believe in it.

	5. The Mediaevals
	     did not believe in it.

	6. The Puritians
	     did not believe in it.

	7. Modern society
	     has separated Church and State
	     but it did not separate the State
	     from business.

	8. The State is no longer
	     a Church's State.

	9. The State is now
	     a Business Men's State.
	


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Getting Stuck

	1. Ethical teachers seem to wish
	     every worker to be a stockholder
	     and every stockhoulder to be a worker.

	2. As a stockholder
	     the worker wants bigger dividends.

	3. As a worker
	     he wants bigger wages.

	4. And the stock promoters
	     stock him with stocks
	     till he gets stuck.

	5. And labor organizers
	     promise him better conditions
	     and exact bigger dues.

	6. And the worker
	     finds himself exploited
	     both by stock promoters
	     and labor organizers.
	


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A Modern Pest

	1. "What ails modern society
	     is separation
	     of the spiritual
	     from the material",
	     says Glenn Frank.

	2. "Secularism is a pest",
	     says Pius XI.

	3. When religion
	     has nothing to do
	     with education,
	     education,
	     education is only
	     information;
	     plenty of facts,
	     but no understanding.

	4. When religion
	     has nothing to do
	     with politics,
	     politics is only
	     factionalism:
	     "Let's turn the rascals out
	     so our good friends
	     can get in."

	5. When religion 
	     has nothing to do
	     with business,
	     business is only 
	     commercialism:
	     "Let's get what we can
	     while the getting is good."
	


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Shouting With Rotarians

	1. The modern man looks for thought
	     so that he can have light,
	     and he is unable to find it
	     in our modern schools.

	2. According to Professor Meiklejohn,
	     "Students go school
	     not to be directed
	     but to become business men."

	3. According to Glenn Frank,
	     President of the University of Wisconsin,
	     "Schools reflect the environment,
	     they do not create it."

	4. Which explains why
	     shortly after their graduation,
	     school graduates could be heard
	     shouting with Rotarians:
	     "Service for profits",
	     "Time is money",
	     "Keep Smiling",
	     "Business is business",
	     "How are you making out?"
	     "The law of supply and demand",
	     "Competition is the life of trade",
	     "Your dollar is your best friend".
	


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Christianity Untried

	1. Chesterton says:
	    "The Christian ideal
	    has not been tried
	    and found wanting.
	2. It has been found difficult
	    and left untried."
	3. Christianity has not been tried
	    because people thought
	    it was impractical.
	4. And men have tried everything
	    except Christianity.
	5. And everything
	    that men have tried
	    has failed.
		 


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The Duty of Hospitality

	1. People who are in need 
	    and are not afraid to beg 
	    give to people not in need 
	    the occasion to do good 
	    for goodness'sake.
	2. Modern society calls the beggar 
	    bum and panhandler 
	    and gives him the bum's rush. 
	    But the Greeks used to say 
	    that people in need
	    are the ambassadors of the gods.
	3. Although you may be called 
	    bums and panhandlers 
	    you are in fact
	    the Ambassadors of God.
	4. As God's Ambassadors 
	    you should be given food, 
	    clothing and shelter 
	    by those who are able to give it.
	5. Mahometan teachers tell us 
	    that God commands hospitality, 
	    and hospitality is still practiced 
	    in Mahometan countries.
	6. But the duty of hospitality 
	    is neither taught nor practiced 
	    in Christian countries.
		 


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Feeding the Poor at a Sacrifice

	1. In the first centuries
	    of Christianity
	    the hungry were fed
	    at a personal sacrifice,
	    the naked were clothed
	    at a personal sacrifice,
	    the homeless were sheltered
	    at personal sacrifice.
	2. And because the poor
	    were fed, clothed and sheltered
	    at a personal sacrifice,
	    the pagans used to say
	    about the Christians
	    "See how they love each other."
	3. In our own day
	    the poor are no longer
	    fed, clothed, sheltered
	    at a personal sacrifice,
	    but at the expense
	    of the taxpayers.
	4. And because the poor
	    are no longer
	    fed, clothed and sheltered
	    the pagans say about the Christians
	    "See how they pass the buck."
	


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A Radical Change

	1. The order of the day
	    is to talk about the social order. 
	2. Conservatives would like
	    to keep it from changing
	    but they don't know how.
	3. Liberals try to patch it
	    and call it a New Deal.
	4. Socialists want a change, 
	    but a gradual change.
	5. Communists want a change,
	    an immediate change,
	    but a Socialist change.
	6. Communists in Russia
	    do not build Communism,
	    they build Socialism.
	7. Communists want to pass
	    from capitalism to Socialism
	    and from Socialism to Communism.
	8. I want a change,
	    and a radical change.
	9. I want a change
	    from an acquisitive society
	    to a functional society,
	    from a society of go-getters
	    to a society of go-givers.


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Thirteenth-Century France

	1. Henry Adams, who had in his ancestry
	     two Presidents of the United States,
	     says in his autobiography
	     that one cannot get an education
	     in modern America.

	2. And the reason he gives is,
	     that there is
	     no unity of thought
	     in modern America.

	3. So he went to England
	     and found that modern England
	     is too much like America.

	4. So he went to France
	     and found that modern France
	     is too much like England and America.

	5. But in France, Henry Adams found
	     that one could get an education
	     in thirteenth-century France.

	6. And he wrote a book concerning
	     the Cathedral of Chartes
	     and the Mount Saint-Michel,
	     where he points out
	     that there was unity of thought
	     in thirteenth-century France.
	


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Guild System - 1200 A.D.

	1. In 1200 A.D.
	     there was no Capitalist System,
	     there was the Guild System.

	2. The doctrine of the Guilds
	     was the doctrine
	     of the Common Good.

	3. The people used to say
	     as they do now:
	     "What can I do for you?"
	     but they meant what they said.

	4. Now they say one thing
	     and they mean another.

	5. They did not look for markets,
	     they let markets
	     look for them.
	


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Roman Law - 1300 A.D.

	1. In 1300 A.D.
	     the Roman Law
	     took place
	     of the Canon Law.

	2. The Roman Law
	     enables rich men
	     to live among the poor men.

	3. The Canon Law
	     enables good men
	     to live among bad men.

	4. "Divide to rule"
	     became the slogan
	     of the politicians.

	5. In his book "The Prince",
	     Machiavelli
	     taught them how.

	6. So politics
	     ceased to be policy
	     and became 
	     just politics.
	


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Middle-Man - 1400 A.D.

	1. Around 1400 A.D.
	     appears the middle-man.

	2. He offers to buy the goods
	     and to find a market.

	3. The guild's man
	     thinks about the money
	     offered for his goods
	     and forgets the Common Good.

	4. And the middle-man
	     is not interested
	     in selling useful goods
	     but in making money
	     on any kind of goods.

	5. And the consumer 
	     never meets the producer
	     and the producer
	     ceases to think
	     in terms of service
	     and begins to think
	     in terms of profits.
	


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Calvinism - 1530 A.D.

	1. American Puritanism
	     was to a great extent
	     an outgrowth of Calvinism.

	2. Andre' Siegfried says:
	     "The Puritan
	     is proud to be rich.

	3. "If he makes money,
	     he likes to tell himself
	     that Divine Providence
	     sends it to him.

	4. "His wealth itself
	     becomes in his eyes
	     as well as the eyes of others
	     a mark of God's blessing.

	5. "A time comes
	     when he no longer knows
	     if he acts for duty's sake
	     or for interest's sake.

	6. "It becomes difficult
	     in those conditions
	     to make a demarcation
	     between religious aspiration
	     and the pursuit of wealth."
	


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Banker - 1600 A.D.

	1. Before John Calvin
	     people were not allowed
	     to lend money at interest.

	2. John Calvin decided
	     to legalize
	     money-lending at interest
	     in spite of the teachings
	     of the Prophets of Israel
	     and the Fathers of the Church.

	3. Protestant countries
	     tried to keep up with John Calvin
	     and money-lending at interest
	     became the general practice.

	4. And money ceased to be
	     a means of exchange
	     and began to be
	     a means to make money.

	5. So people lent money on time
	     and started to think of time
	     in terms of money
	     and said to each other:
	     "Time is money."
	


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Manufacturer - 1700 A.D.

	1. With the discovery of steam
	     the factory system
	     made its appearance.

	2. To take drudgery out of the home
	     was suppose to be
	     the aim of the manufacturer.

	3. So the guildsman
	     left his shop
	     and went to the factory.

	4. But the profit-making manufacturer
	     found it more profitable
	     to employ women
	     than to employ men.

	5. So the women left the home
	     and went to the factory.

	6. Soon the children
	     followed the women
	     into the factory.

	7. So the men have to stay at home
	     while women and children
	     work in the factory.
	


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Economist - 1800 A.D.

	1. The Laissez-Faire Economists
	     told everybody
	     that competition
	     is the life of trade
	     and that it is a case
	     of survival of the fittest.

	2. So since 1800
	     looking for markets
	     has engaged men's activities.

	3. And since trade follows the flag
	     industral nations
	     have also become
	     imperialst nations.

	4. The fight for markets
	     between two industrial nations,
	     England and Germany,
	     was the main cause 
	     of the World War.
	


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World War - 1914

	1. As President Wilson said,
	     the World War
	     was a commercial war.

	2. But a commercial war
	     had to be idealized,
	     so it was called
	     a War for Democracy.

	3. But the War for Democracy
	     did not bring Democracy:
	     it brought
	     Bolshevism in Russia,
	     Fascism in Italy,
	     Nazism in Germany.
	


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World Depression - 1929

	1. After the World War
	     people tried to believe
	     that a New Era
	     had dawned upon the world.

	2. People thought
	     that they had found a solution
	     to the problem
	     of mass-distribution.

	3. People thought
	     that the time had come
	     for the two-car garage,
	     a chicken in every pot,
	     and a sign "To Let"
	     in front of every poor-house.

	4. And everybody
	     wanted to cash in
	     on the future prosperity.

	5. So stock promoters got busy
	     and stocked people with stocks
	     till they got stuck.
	


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God And Mammon

	1. Christ says: "The dollar you have
	     is the dollar you give."

	2. The Banker says: "The dollar you have
	     is the dollar you keep."

	3. Christ says: "You cannot serve two masters,
	     God and Mammom."

	4. "'You cannot.' And all our education consists 
	     in trying to find out how we can,"
	     says Robert Louis Stevenson.

	5. "The poor are the true children of the Church",
	     says Bossuet.

	6. "Modern society
	     has made the bank account
	     the standard of values",
	     says Charles Peguy.
	


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Usurers Are Not Gentlemen

	1. The Prophets of Israel
	     and the Fathers of the Church
	     forbade lending money at interest.

	2. Lending at interest
	     was called usury
	     by the Prophets of Israel
	     and the Fathers of the Church.

	3. Usurers were not considered
	     to be gentlemen
	     when people used to listen
	     to the Prophets of Israel
	     and the Fathers of the Church.

	4. When people used to listen
	     to the Prophets of Israel
	     and the Fathers of the Church
	     they could not see anything gentle
	     in trying to live
	     on the sweat of somebody else's brow
	     by lending money at interest.
	


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Wealth-Producing Maniacs

	1. When John Calvin
	     legalized money-lending at interest,
	     he made the bank account
	     the standard of values.

	2. When the bank account
	     became the standard of values,
	     people ceased to produce for use
	     and began to produce for profits.

	3. When people began to produce for profits
	     they became
	     wealth-producing maniacs.

	4. When people became wealth-producing maniacs
	     they produced too much wealth.

	5. When people found out
	     that they had produced too much wealth
	     they went on an orgy
	     of wealth-destruction
	     and destroyed
	     ten million lives besides.
	


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Mortgaged

	1. Because John Calvin
	     legalized money-lending at interest,
	     the State has legalized
	     money-lending at interest.

	2. Because the State has legalized
	     money-lending at interest,
	     home owners
	     have mortgaged their farms;
	     institutions
	     have mortgaged their buildings;
	     congregations
	     have mortgaged their churches;
	     cities, counties, States
	     and Federal Government
	     have mortgaged their budgets.

	3. So people find themselves
	     in all kinds of financial difficulties
	     because the State
	     has legalized money-lending at interest
	     in spite of the teachings
	     of the Prophets of Israel
	     and the Fathers of the Church.
	


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The Fallacy Of Saving

	1. When people save money
	     that means money is invested.

	2. Money invested
	     increases production.

	3. Increased production
	     brings a surplus in production.

	4. A surplus in production
	     brings unemployment.

	5. Unemployment
	     brings a slump in business.

	6. A slump in business
	     brings more unemployment.

	7. More unemployment
	     brings a depression.

	8. A depression
	     brings more depression.

	9. More depression
	     brings red agitation.

	10. Red agitation
	     brings red revolution.
	


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Avoiding Inflation

	1. Some say
	     that inflation is desirable.

	2. Some say
	     that inflation is deplorable.

	3. Some say
	     that inflation is deplorable
	     but inevitable.

	4. The way to avoid inflation
	     is to lighten the burden
	     of money-borrowers
	     without robbing the money-lenders.

	5. And the way
	     to lighten the burden
	     of money-borrowers
	     with robbing the money-lenders
	     is to pass two laws:
	     one law making immediately illegal
	     all interest on money lent
	     and another law
	     obligating the money-borrowers
	     to pay one per cent of the debt
	     every year
	     during a period
	     of a hundred years.
	


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The Wisdom Of Giving

	1. To give to the poor
	     is to enable the poor to buy.

	2. To enable the poor to buy
	     is to improve the market.

	3. To improve the market
	     is to help business.

	4. To help business
	     is to reduce unemployment.

	5. To reduce unnemployment
	     is to reduce crime.

	6. To reduce crime
	     is to reduce taxation.

	7. So why not give to the poor
	     for business' sake,
	     for humanity's sake,
	     for God's sake?
	


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Share Your Wealth

	1. God wants us 
	     to be our brother's keeper.

	2. To feed the hungry,
	     to clothe the naked,
	     to shelter the homeless,
	     to instruct the ignorant,
	     at a personal sacrifice,
	     is what God
	     wants us to do.

	3. What we give to the poor
	     for Christ's sake
	     is what we carry with us
	     when we die.

	4. As Jean-Jacques Rousseau say:
	     "When man dies
	     he carries
	     in his clutches hands
	     only that which
	     he has given away."
	


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Why Not Be A Beggar?

	1. People who are in need
	     and are not afraid to beg
	     give to people not in need
	     the occasion to do good
	     for goodness' sake.

	2. Modern society
	     calls the beggar
	     bum and panhandler
	     and gives him the bum's rush.

	3. The Greeks used to say
	     that people in need
	     are the ambassadors of the gods.

	4. We read in the Gospel:
	     "As long as you did it
	     to one of the least
	     of My brothers
	     you did it to Me."

	5. While modern society
	     calls the beggars
	     bums and panhandlers,
	     they are in fact
	     the Ambassadors of God.

	6. To be God's Ambassador
	     is something 
	     to be proud of.
	


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Municipal Lodgings

	1. People who are in need
	     are not invited
	     to spend the night
	     in homes of the rich.

	2. There are guest rooms
	     in the homes of the rich
	     but they are not 
	     for those who need them.

	3. They are not
	     for those who need them
	     because those who need them
	     are no longer considered
	     as the Ambassadors of God.

	4. So the duty of hospitality
	     is no longer considered
	     as a personal duty.

	5. So people without a home
	     are sent to the city
	     where hospitality is given
	     at the taxpayer's expense.
	


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Bishop-Shy

	1. The Holy Father
	     appoints a man
	     named a Bishop
	     to a seat - a cathedra.

	2. From that seat - cathedra
	     the Bishop
	     teaches the truth
	     to all men
	     so the truth
	     may make them free.

	3. But some people
	     are Bishop-shy.

	4. They are Bishop-shy
	     because they are
	     hungry, shivering, or sleepy.

	5. They must be
	     fed, clothed, and sheltered
	     before they will consent
	     to come to listen
	     to Christ's Bishop.

	6. To feed, clothe, and shelter them
	     at a personal sacrifice
	     is to participate
	     in the Bishop's apostolate.
	


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Passing The Buck

	1. In the first centuries of Christianity
	     the poor were fed, clothed, and sheltered
	     at a personal sacrifice
	     and the Pagans
	     said about the Christians:
	     "See how they love each other."

	2. Today the poor are fed, clothed, and sheltered
	     by the politicians
	     at the expense
	     of the taxpayers.

	3. And because the poor
	     are no longer
	     fed, clothed, and sheltered
	     at a personal sacrifice
	     but at the expense
	     of taxpayers
	     Pagans say about Christians:
	     "See how they pass the buck."
	


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Hospices

	1. We read in the Catholic Encyclopedia
	     that during the early ages
	     of Christianity
	     the Hospices
	     or Houses of Hospitality
	     was a shelter
	     for the sick, the poor,
	     the orphan, the old, the traveller,
	     and the needy of every kind.

	2. Originally the Hospices
	     of Houses of Hospitality
	     were under the supervision
	     of the Bishops
	     who designated priests
	     to administer
	     the spiritual
	     and temporal affairs
	     of these charitable institutions.
	


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Houses Of Hospitality

	1. We need Houses of Hospitality
	     to give to the rich
	     the opportunity
	     to serve the poor.

	2. We need Houses of Hospitality
	     to bring the scholars
	     to the workers
	     or the workers
	     to the scholars.

	3. We need Houses of Hospitality
	     to bring back to institutions
	     the technique to institutions.

	4. We need Houses of Hospitality
	     to show
	     what idealism looks like
	     when it is practiced.
	


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Servants Of The Poor

	1. In seventeenth-century France
	     there was a priest
	     by the name of Vincent.

	2. Father Vincent realized
	     that the country
	     was going to the dogs.

	3. When something goes wrong
	     they say in France:
	     "Cherchez la femme-
	     look for the woman."

	4. Looking for the woman
	     Father Vincent found out
	     that many woman
	     were trying to be
	     the mistresses of the rich.

	5. St. Vincent of Paul
	     gathered several women
	     and told them:
	     "If you want
	     to put the country on its feet
	     refuse to be
	     the mistress of the rich
	     and choose to be
	     the servants of the poor."
	


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Scholars And Workers

	1. By living with the workers
	     in Houses of Hospitality
	     scholars will be able
	     to convey to the workers
	     why things are
	     what they are,
	     how things would be
	     if they were as they should be,
	     and how a path can be made
	     from things as they are
	     to things as they should be.

	2. By living with the workers
	     in Houses of Hospitality
	     scholars will be able
	     to win the workers' sympathy,
	     and therefore
	     keep the workers
	     from being influenced
	     by selfish demagogues.

	3. By living with the workers
	     in Houses of Hospitality
	     ascholars will be able
	     to become dynamic
	     and therefore
	     be the driving force
	     of a new social order.
	


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Social Workers and Workers

	1. The training of social workers
	     enables them to help people
	     to adjust themselves
	     to the existing environment.

	2. The training of social workers
	     does not enable them 
	     to help people
	     to change the environment.

	3. Social workers
	     must become social minded
	     before they can be
	     critics of the existing environment
	     and free creative agents
	     of the new environment.

	4. In the Houses of Hospitality
	     social workers can aquire
	     the art of human contacts
	     and the social-mindedness
	     or understanding of social forces
	     which will make them
	     critical of the existing environment
	     and free creative agents
	     of a new environment.
	


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Rich And Poor

	1. Afraid of the poor
	     who don't like to get poorer,
	     the rich who like to get richer
	     turn to the State for protection.

	2. But the State is not only
	     the State of the rich
	     it is also the State of the poor
	     who don't like to get poorer.

	3. So the State sometimes chooses to help
	     the many poor
	     who don't like to get poorer,
	     at the expense of the few rich
	     who like to get richer.

	4. Dissatisfied with the State,
	     the rich who like to get richer
	     turn to the Church
	     to save them from the poor
	     who don't like to get poorer.

	5. But the Church can only tell the rich
	     who like to get richer:
	     "Woe to you rich
	     who like to get richer,
	     if you don't help the poor
	     who don't like to get poorer."
	


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Not Communists

	1. There is nothing wrong
	     with Communism,
	     but there is something wrong
	     with Communists.

	2. The wrong thing with Communists is
	     that they are not Communists,
	     they are Socialists.

	3. There is no Communism
	     in Soviet Russia,
	     there is State Socialism
	     in Soviet Russia.

	4. The State has not withered away,
	     the wage system still prevails,
	     and they are selling
	     7% government bonds
	     in Soviet Russia.

	5. By selling 7% government bonds
	     they are creating
	     a new parasitic class
	     in Socialist Russia.
	


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Taking Over

	1. The aim of the Communists
	     is to take over the control
	     of the means of production
	     and distribution.

	2. The means of production
	     and distribution
	     are now in the hands
	     of Capitalists.

	3. The class war is a war
	     between Communists
	     and Capitalists
	     over control
	     of the means of production
	     and distribution.

	4. Patriots believe
	     that the way to bring about
	     a classless society
	     is a class war
	     between the Capitalist State
	     and the working class.
	


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What Is Communism?

	1. Communists believe
	     in capturing the State
	     so as to be able
	     to use it as a club
	     to prevent anybody
	     from becoming a Capitalist.

	2. The Communist manifesto
	     defines Communism
	     as "a state of society"
	     where each one works 
	     according to his ability
	     and gets
	     according to his needs."

	3. Using the power of the State
	     will enable Communists
	     to prevent anybody
	     from becoming
	     a successful Capitalist
	     but it will not
	     make anybody
	     Communist at heart.

	4. To be a Communist
	     according to the definition
	     of the Communist Manifesto
	     is to be willing to give one's labor
	     for the benefit
	     of a Communist Community.
	


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I Agree

	1. I agree with seven Bishops,
	     three of whom are Archbishops,
	     that the Communist criticism
	     of the rugged individualism
	     of bourgeois capitalism
	     is a sound criticism.

	2. I agree with seven Bishops,
	     three of whom are Archbishops,
	     that the main social aim
	     of the communist Party
	     is a sound social aim.

	3. I agree with seven Bishops,
	     three whom are Archbishops,
	     that the Communists are not sound
	     when they advocate class struggle
	     and proletarian dictatorship
	     as the best practical means
	     to realize their sound social aim.
	


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To Be A Marxist

	1. Before he died
	     Karl Marx told one of his friends:
	     "I have lived long enough
	     to be able to say
	     that i am not a Marxist."

	2. To be a Marxist,
	     according to the logic of Das Kapital,
	     is to maintain
	     that the best thing to do
	     is to wait patiently
	     till Capitalism
	     has fulfilled its historic mission.

	3. To be a Marxist
	     according to the logic of Das Kapital,
	     is to step back,
	     take and academic view of things,
	     and watch the self-satisfied Capitalists
	     dig their own graves.

	4. To be a Marxist,
	     according to the logic of Das Kapital,
	     is to let economic evolution
	     do its work
	     without ever attempting
	     to give it a push.
	


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Karl Marx Soon Realized

	1. Karl Marx soon realized
	     that his own analysis
	     of bourgeois society
	     could not be the basis
	     of a dynamic revolutionary movement.

	2. karl Marx soon realized
	     that a forceful Communist Manifesto
	     was the necessary foundation
	     of a dynamic Communist Movement.

	3. Karl Marx soon realized,
	     as Lenin realized,
	     that there is no revolution
	     without revolutionary action;
	     that there is no revolutionary action
	     without a revolutionary movement;
	     that there is no revolutionary movement
	     without a vanguard of revolution
	     and that there is no vanguard of revolution
	     without a theory of revolution.
	


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The Communist Manifesto

	1. Having realized
	     that a Communist Manifesto
	     was the basis of a Communist Movement,
	     Karl Marx decided
	     to write a Communist Manifesto.

	2. To write the Communist Manifesto
	     Karl marx did not use
	     his own analysis of Capitalism.

	3. He took the criticism
	     of the bourgeois society of his time
	     by Victor Considerant
	     and made it the first part
	     of the Communist Manifesto.

	4. He took the definition of Communism
	     by Proudhon
	     and made it his own.

	5. He tried to make himself believe
	     that class struggle was the first step
	     from a Capitalist society
	     where man is inhuman to man
	     to a Communist society
	     where man in human to man.
	


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Five Definitions

	1.A Bourgeois
	     is a fellow who tries to be somebody
	     by trying to be
	     like everybody,
	     which makes him
	     a nobody.

	2. A Dictator
	     is a fellow
	     who does not hesitate
	     to strike you over the head
	     if you refuse to do
	     what he waants you to do.

	3. A Leader
	     is a fellow
	     who refuses to be crazy
	     the way everybody else is crazy
	     and tries to be crazy
	     in his own crazy way.

	4. A Bolshevist
	     is a fellow
	     who tries to get
	     what the other fellow has
	     and to regulate
	     what you should have.

	5. A Communitarian
	     is a fellow
	     who refuses to be
	     what the other fellow is
	     and tries to be
	     what he wants him to be.
	


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They And We

	1. People say:
	     "They don't do this,
	     they don't do that,
	     they ought to do this,
	     this ought to do that."

	2. Always "They"
	     and never "I".

	3.People should say:
	     "They are crazy
	     for doing this
	     and not doing that
	     but I don't need
	     to be crazy
	     the way they are crazy."

	4. The Communitarian Revolution
	     is basically
	     a personal revolution.

	5. It starts with I
	     not with They.

	6. One I plus one I
	     makes two I
	     and two I makes We.

	7. "We" is a community
	     while "they" is a crowd.
	


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Communitarian Movement

	1. The Nazis, the Fascists,
	     and the Bolshevists
	     are Totalitarians.

	2. The Catholic Worker
	     is Communitarian.

	3. The principles of Communitarianism
	     are expounded every month
	     in the French magazine
	     Esprit (The Spirit).

	4. Emmanuel Mounier,
	     editor of the magizine,
	     has a book entitled,
	     "La revolution personnaliste
	     et communitaire."

	5. Raymond de Becker
	     is the leader in Belgium
	     of the Communitarian Movement

	6. Dr. Kagawa
	     the Japanese co-operator
	     is truly imbued
	     with the communitarian spirit.
	


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The C.P. And C.M.

	1. The Communist Party
	     credits bourgeois capitalism
	     with an historic mission.

	2. The Communitarian Movement
	     condemns it
	     on general principles.

	3. The Communist Party
	     throws the monkey-wrench
	     of class struggle
	     into the economic machinery
	     and by doing so
	     delays the fulfilling
	     of the historic mission
	     which it credits
	     to capitalism.

	4. The Communitarian Movement
	     aims to create
	     a new society
	     within the shell of the old
	     with the philosophy of the new
	     which is not
	     a new philosophy
	     but a very old philosophy,
	     a philosophy so old
	     that it looks like new.

	5. The Communist Party
	     stands for proletarian dictatorship.

	6. The Communitarian Movement
	     stands for personalist leadership.
	


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What Labor Needs

	1. A Communist Community
	     is a Community
	     with a common unity.

	2. A common belief
	     is what makes the unity
	     if a community.

	3. Norman Thomas says
	     that "Ramsay MacDonald
	     has failed to give to Labor 
	     a philosophy of labor".

	4. What labor needs
	     is not economic security.

	5. What Labor needs
	     is a philosophy of labor.
	


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Three Ways To Make A Living

	1. Mirabeau says:
	     "There are only three ways
	     to make a living:
	     Stealing, begging, working."

	2. Stealing is against the law of God
	     and against the law of men.

	3. Begging is against the law of men,
	     but not against the law of God.

	4. Working is neither against the law of God
	     nor against the law of men.

	5. But they say
	     that there is no work to do.

	6. There is plenty of work to do,
	     but no wages.

	7. But people do not need
	     to work for wages.

	8. They can offer their services
	     as a gift.
	


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Capital And Labor

	1. "Capital", says Karl Marx,
	     "is accumulated labor,
	     not for the benefit of the laborers,
	     but for the benefit of the accumulators."

	2. And Capitalists succeed
	     in accumulating labor
	     by treating labor
	     not as a gift,
	     but as a commodity,
	     buying it as any other commodity
	     at the lowest possible price.

	3. And organized labor
	     plays into the hands
	     of the capitalists
	     or accumulators of labor
	     by treating their own labor
	     not as a gift,
	     but as a commodity,
	     selling it as any other commodity
	     at the highest possible price.
	


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Selling their Labor

	1. And when the capitalists
	     or accumulators of labor
	     have accumulated so much
	     of the laborer's labor
	     that they no longer
	     find it profitable
	     to buy the labor's labor
	     then the laborers
	     can no longer
	     sell their labor
	     to the capitalists
	     or accumulators of labor.

	2. And when the laborers
	     can no longer
	     sell their labor
	     to the capitalists
	     or accumulators of labor,
	     they can no longer buy
	     the products of their labor.

	3. And that is 
	     what the laborers get
	     for selling their labor
	     to the capitalists
	     or accumulators of labor.
	


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What Makes Man Human

	1. To give and not to take
	   that is what makes man human.
	2. To serve and not to rule
	   that is what makes man human.
	3. To help and not to crush
	   that is what makes man human.
	4. To nourish and not to devour
	   that is what makes man human.
	5. And if need be
	   to die and not to live
	   that is what makes man human.
	6. Ideals and not deals
	   that is what makes man human.
	7. Creed and not greed
	   that is what makes man human.


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Better Or Better Off

	1. The world would be better off,
	     if people tried
	     to become better.

	2. And people would
	     become better
	     if they stopped trying
	     to be better off.

	3. For when everybody tries
	     to become better off,
	     nobody is better off.

	4. But when everybody tries
	     to become better,
	     everybody is better off.

	5. Everybody would be rich
	     if nobody tried
	     to be richer.

	6. And nobody would be poor
	     if everybody tried
	     to be the poorest.

	7. And everybody woiuld be
	     what he ought to be
	     if everybody tried to be
	     what he wants 
	     the other fellow to be.
	


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Big Shots And Little Shots

	1. When the big shots
	     become bigger shots
	     then the little shots
	     become littler shots.

	2. And when the little shots
	     become littler shots
	     because the big shots
	     become bigger shots
	     then the little shots
	     get mad at the big shots.

	3. And when the little shots
	     get mad at the big shots
	     because the big shots
	     by becomming bigger shots
	     make the little shots
	     littler shots
	     they shoot the big shots
	     full of little shots.

	4. But by shooting the big shots
	     full of little shots
	     the little shots
	     do not become big shots,
	     they make everything all shot.
	


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Christianity, Capitalism, Communism

	1. Christianity has nothing to do
	     with either modern Capitalism
	     or modern Communism,
	     for Christianity
	     has a Capitalism of its own,
	     and a Communism of its own.

	2. Modern Capitalism
	     is based on property
	     without responsibility,
	     while Christian Capitalism
	     is based on property
	     with responsibility.

	3. Modern Communism
	     is based on poverty through force,
	     while Christian Communism
	     is based on poverty through choice.

	4. For a Christian,
	     voluntary poverty is the ideal
	     as exemplified by Saint Francis of Assisi,
	     while privte property
	     is not an absolute right,
	     but a trust,
	     which must be administered
	     for the benefit of God's children.
	


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Looking At Property

	Fr. Henry Carr, Superior of the Basilians, says:
	1. Socialists and Communists
	     battle against
	     the unequal conditions
	     of the poor.

	2. Presumably they would be satisfied
	     if all were on a level.

	3. Do you not see
	     that this does not touch
	     the question that is vital,
	     namely, whether or not the people,
	     no matter how much
	     or how little they possess,
	     regard it and use it
	     in the way they should?

	4. The right way
	     is to regard it
	     as something entrusted to us
	     to use for the benefit
	     of ourselves and others.

	5. The wrong way
	     is to look on it as something we own
	     and can use as we desire
	     without any duty to others.

	6. Good or bad conditions
	     will follow
	     good or bad use
	     of property.
	


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What Saint Francis Desired

	According to Johannes Jorgensen, a Danish convert, living in Assisi:
	1. Saint Francis desired
	      that men should give up
	      superfluous possessions.
	2. Saint Francis desired
	      that men should work
	      with their hands.
	3. Saint Francis desired
	      that men should offer their services
	      as a gift.
	4. Saint Francis desired
	      that men should ask other people for help
	      when work failed them.
	5. Saint Francis desired
	      that men should live
	      as free as birds.
	6. Saint Francis desired
	      that men should go through life
	      giving thanks to God
	      for His gifts.

	


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On The Level

	1. Owen Young says:
	     "We will never have prosperity
	     as long as
	     there is no balance
	     between industry
	     and agriculture."

	2. The farmer sells
	     in an open market
	     and is forced to buy
	     in a restricted market.

	3. When the farmer gets
	     a pair of overalls
	     for a bushel of wheat
	     the wheat and the overalls
	     are on the level.

	4. When the farmer
	     has to give
	     two bushels of wheat
	     for a pair of overalls
	     the wheat and the overalls
	     are not on the level.

	5. Wheat and overalls
	     must be on the level.
	


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Industrialization

	1. Lenin said:
	     "The world cannot be
	     half industrial
	     and half agricultural."

	2. England, Germany,
	     Japan, and America
	     have become
	     industrialized.

	3. Soviet Russia
	     is trying to keep up
	     with England, Germany,
	     Japan, and America.

	4. When all the world
	     becomes industrialized
	     every country
	     will be looking 
	     for foreign markets.

	5. But when every country
	     becomes industrialized
	     you will not have
	     foreign markets.
	


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Mechanized Labor

	1. Gandhi says:
	     "Industrialism is evil."

	2. Industrialism is evil
	     because it brings idleness
	     both to the capitalist class
	     and the working class.

	3. Idleness does no good
	     either to the capitalist class
	     or the working class.

	4. Creative labor
	     is what keeps people
	     out of mischief.

	5. Creative labor
	     is craft labor.

	6. Mechanized labor
	     is not creative labor.
	


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No Pleasure In Work

	1.Carlyle says:
	     "He who has found his work
	     let him look
	     for no other blessedness."

	2. But workmen
	     cannot find hapiness
	     in mechanized work.

	3. As Charles Devas says,
	     "The great majority
	     having to perform
	     some mechanized operation
	     which requires little thought
	     and allows no originality
	     and which
	     concerns an object
	     in the transformation of which
	     whether previous or subsequent
	     they have no part,
	     cannot take pleasure
	     in their work."
	


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Industrialism And Art

	1. Eric Gill says:
	     the notion of work
	     has been separated
	     from the notion of art.

	2. The notion of the useful
	     has been separated
	     from the notion of the beautiful.

	3. The artist,
	     that is to say,
	     the responsible workman,
	     has been separated
	     from all other workmen.

	4. The factory hand
	     has no responsibility
	     for what he produces.

	5. He has been reduced
	     to a sub-human condition
	     of intellectual irresponsibility.

	6. Industrialism
	     has released the artist
	     from the necessity
	     of making anything useful.

	7. Industrialism
	     has also released the workman
	     from making anything amusing.
	


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From A Chinese

	1. A Chinese says:
	     I thought I had become westernized
	     but now I am becoming repatriated.

	2. The material progress of America
	     has dazzled me.

	3. I wished while there
	     to transplant what I saw
	     to China.

	4. But now that I am home again
	     I see that our two civilizations
	     have irreconcilable differences.

	5. Yours is a machine civilization;
	     ours is a handicraft civilization.

	6. Your people
	     work in factories;
	     our people
	     work in shops.

	7. Your people
	     produce quality things
	     that are alike.

	8. Our people
	     produce quality things
	     that are different.
	


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Regard For The Soil

	1. Andrew Nelson Lytle says:
	     The escape from industrialism
	     is not in socialism
	     or in sovietism.

	2. The answer lies
	     in a return to a society
	     where agriculture is practised
	     by most of the people.

	3. It is in fact impossible
	     for any culture
	     to be sound and healthy
	     without a proper regard
	     for the soil,
	     no matter
	     how many urban dwellers
	     think that their food
	     comes from groceries
	     and delicatessens
	     or their milk from tin cans.

	4. This ignorance
	     does not release them
	     from a final dependence
	     upon the farm.
	


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Up To Catholics

	1. Ralph Adams Cram says:
	     What I propose
	     is that Catholics
	     should take up
	     this back-to-the-land problem
	     and put it into operation.

	2. Why Catholics?
	     Because they realize
	     more clearly than any others
	     the shortcomings
	     of the old capitalist
	     industrial system.

	3. They, better than others,
	     see the threat
	     that impends.

	4. They alone understand
	     that while the family
	     is the primary social unit,
	     the community comes next.

	5.  And there is 
	     no sound
	     and righteous
	     and enduring community
	     where all its members
	     are not substantially 
	     of one mind.
	


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What The Unemployed Need

	1. The unemployed
	     need free rent;
	     they can have that
	     on a Farming Commune.

	2. The unemployed
	     need free food;
	     they can raise that
	     on a Farming Commune.

	3. The unemployed
	     need free fuel;
	     they can cut that
	     on a Farming Commune.

	4. The unemployed
	     need to acquire skill;
	     they can do that
	     on a Farming Commune.

	5. The unemployed
	     need to improve
	     their minds;
	     they can do that 
	     on a Farming Commune.

	6. The unemployed
	     need spiritual guidance;
	     they can have that
	     on a Farming Commune.
	


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Professors Of A Farming Commune

	1. Professors of a Farming Commune
	     do not look for endowments;
	     they look for manual labor.

	2. Professors of a Farming Commune
	     do not tell their students
	     what to do;
	     they show them
	     how to do it.

	3. Professors of a Farming Commune
	     do not enable their students
	     to master subjects;
	     they enable them
	     to master situations.

	4. Professors of a Farming Commune
	     do not teach their students
	     how to make
	     profitable deals;
	     they teach them
	     how to realize
	     worthy ideals.
	


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Laborers Of A Farming Commune

	1. Laborers of a Farming Commune
	     do not work for wages;
	     they leave that
	     to the Farming Commune.

	2. Laborers of a Farming Commune
	     do not look
	     for a bank account;
	     they leave that
	     to the Farming Commune.

	3. Laborers of a Farming Commune
	     do not look for
	     an insurance policy;
	     they leave that 
	     to the Farming Commune.

	4. Laborers of a Farming Commune
	     do not look for
	     an old-age pension;
	     they leave that
	     to the Farming Commune.

	5. Laborers of a Farming Commune
	     do not look for
	     economic security;
	     they leave that
	     to the Farming Commune.
	


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What The Communists Say They Believe

	1. Communists believe
	     that the capitalist system
	     has reached the point
	     where it no longer works.

	2. Communists believe
	     that when the workers
	     come to the realization
	     of the downfall of capitalism
	     they will no longer tolerate it.

	3. Communists believe
	     that the capitalist class
	     will resort to all means
	     that may be in their power
	     to maintain their existence.

	4. Communists believe
	     that the Communist Party
	     knows how to assure
	     production and distribution
	     in an orderly manner
	     according to a pre-designed plan.
	


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What The Fascists Say They Believe

	1. The Fascists believe
	     in a national economy
	     for the protection
	     of national and private interests.

	2. Fascists believe
	     in the regulation of industries
	     so as to assure
	     a wage for the worker
	     and a dividend for the investor.

	3. Fascists believe
	     in class collaboration
	     under State supervision.

	4. Fascists believe
	     in the co-operation
	     of employers' unions
	     and workers' unions.
	


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What The Socialists Say They Believe

	1. Socialists believe
	     in a gradual realization
	     of a classless society.

	2. Socialists believe
	     in the social ownership
	     of natural resources
	     and the means of production
	     and distribution.

	3. Socialists believe
	     in a transition period
	     under democratic management
	     between two economic systems,
	     the systems of production for use
	     and the system of production for profits.

	4. Socialists believe
	     in freedom of the press,
	     freedom of assemblage,
	     freedom of worship.
	


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What The Democrats Say They Believe

	1. Democrats believe
	     in universal suffrage,
	     universal education,
	     freedom of opportunity.

	2. Democrats believe
	     in the right of the rich
	     to become richer
	     and of the poor
	     to try to become rich.

	3. Democrats believe
	     in labor unions
	     and financial corporations.

	4. Democrats believe
	     in the law of supply and demand.
	


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What the Catholic Worker Believes

	1. The Catholic Worker believes
	    in the gentle personalism
	    of traditional Catholicism.
	2. The Catholic Worker believes
	    in the personal obligation
	    of looking after
	    the needs of our brother.
	3. The Catholic Worker believes
	    in the daily practice 
	    of the Works of Mercy.
	4. The Catholic Worker believes 
	    in Houses of Hospitality 
	    for the immediate relief 
	    of those who are in need.
	5. The Catholic Worker believes 
	    in the establishment 
	    of Farming Communes 
	    where each one works 
	    according to his ability 
	    and gets according to his need.
	6. The Catholic Worker believes 
	    in creating a new society 
	    within the shell of the old 
	    with the philosophy of the new, 
	    which is not a new philosophy 
	    but a very old philosophy, 
	    a philosophy so old 
	    that it looks like new.


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Right Or Wrong

	1. Some people say:
	     "My country
	     is always right."

	2. Some people say:
	     "My country
	     is always wrong."

	3. Some people say:
	     "My country
	     is sometimes right
	     and sometimes wrong,
	     but my country
	     right or wrong."

	4. To stick up for one's country 
	     when one's country is wrong
	     does not make 
	     the country right.

	5. To stick up for the right
	     even when the world is wrong
	     is the only way we know
	     to make everything right.
	


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Protecting France

	1. To protect French citizens
	     living in Algeria
	     the French took Algeria
	     from the natives.

	2. To protect Algeria
	     the French took control
	     for Tunisia.

	3. To protect Senegal
	     the French took Dahomey,
	     the Gabon, and the Congo.

	4. To protect the isle of Reunion
	     the French took Madagascar.

	5. They took Madagascar
	     for another reason.

	6. The other reason was
	     that the English
	     wished to take it.

	7. When the English
	     take something
	     the French say:
	     "The English do that
	     because they are grabbers."

	8. When the French take something,
	     the French say:
	     "We do that
	     because we are
	     good patriots."
	


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Protecting England

	1. To protect the British Isles
	     the English took the sea.

	2. To protect the sea
	     the English took Gibraltar,
	     Canada, and India.

	3. To protect India
	     the English went to Egypt.

	4. To protect Egypt
	     the English took the Sudan.

	5. To protect the Sudan
	     the English forced the French
	     to leave Fashoda.

	6. To protect the Cape and Natal
	     the English took the Transvaal.

	7. To protect South Africa
	     the English prevented the French
	     from giving Agadir
	     to Germany.

	8. So the English
	     are just as good
	     or just as bad 
	     as the French.
	


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Civilizing Ethiopia

	1. The French believe
	     that trade follows the flag.

	2. So do the English,
	     so do the Germans,
	     so do the Japanese,
	     so do the Italians.

	3. Italy is in Ethopia
	     for the same reason
	     that the French
	     are in Algeria,
	     the English in India,
	     the Japanese in Manchuria.

	4. The Italians say
	     thatthe Ethopians
	     are not civilized.

	5. The last war proves
	     that Europeans
	     are no more civilized
	     than the Africans.

	6. So Europeans
	     ought to find a way
	     to become civilized
	     before thinking
	     about the best way
	     to civilize Africans.
	


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Moral Disarmament

	1. Theodore Roosevelt used to say:
	     "If you want peace
	     prepare for war."

	2. So everybody prepared for war
	     but war preparations
	     did not bring peace;
	     they brought war.

	3. Since war preparations
	     brought war,
	     why not quit
	     preparing for war.

	4. If nations preparing for peace
	     instead of preparing for war,
	     they might have peace.

	5. Aristide Briand used to say:
	     "The best kind of disarmament
	     is the disarmament of the heart."

	6. The disarmament of Germany
	     by the Allies
	     was not the product
	     of a change of heart
	     on the part of the Allies
	     toward Germany.
	


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